History of Enamel

The origins of the art of enamelling are lost in the mists of pre-Christian history of the Near East.  It appears to have flourished for the first time in the 5th to 10th centuries.  Enamelling in the Rhine district in the 11th to 14th centuries, in France, particularly in Limoges, in the 12th to 14th centuries, and in the Far East, e.g. China and Japan, during the last few centuries, is worth a special mention.  In these and many other places there were both stylistic and technical developments which led to characteristic art forms.  The high esteem enjoyed by enamelling is illustrated by the fact that enamel and jewels were used interchangeably on mediaeval reliquaries.

In 1761, more than 200 years ago, J.Gottlieb Justi suggested that iron vessels could be
glazed.  In 1799 the Englishman S.S. Hickling was awarded a patent for his invention of glazing iron and other metals.  In 1837 Chr. Erbe published a book on enamelling in which leadfree enamels were described for the first time. 

The importance of cobalt and nickel oxides for good adhesion was realized about 1890.  In 1934 A. Dietzel substantially elucidated the mechanics of adhesion.  In 1942 W.Heimsoeth in the Bayer Works Leverkusen developed the first industrially usable titanium white enamel with recrystallization opacity which solved the problems of a crucial phase of white enamelling.  Base3d on investigations in E ngland zirconium enamels, which had been known since before the war, were used in 1948 in the USA for white enamelling of cast iron by the dusting method.

Even though the development of enamel has currently reached the acme of perfection, Siam Fuji Ware are continuously engaged in developing special enamels and new application methods so as to be able to offer modern enamels and methods to the industry.